Nation without State:Chechnya

Chechnya, a republic in Russia, is a remote oil-rich area bordering Georgia with a predominantly Muslim population. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the republic has been the scene of war claiming thousands of lives. The Chechens
opposed the Russian conquest of the Caucasus during the period 1818-1917. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Chechens made a declaration of independence establishing the Chechen-Ingush autonomous region in 1924. In 1930, it became an autonomous republic.  Chechens are predominantly Sunni Muslims like their Ingush neighbours in Dagestan. External rules first by the Russian Czars and then by the Soviet Union were quite unpopular and unwelcome in Chechnya. Later during World War II the disgruntled Chechens collaborated with the Nazis to gain independence from Russian rule. The Soviet regime was infuriated by this move of the Chechens and Stalin, who was the supreme leader, ordered the mass deportation of Chechens to Kazakhstan and Siberia. When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, Chechens separatists again claimed independence.  In 1994, Russia sent troops to Chechnya which initiated a bloody war that continued till 1996. Russia withdrew its troops and granted Chechnya significant autonomy but not independence. In 1999, when Chechen fighters supported a movement for making Chechnya an independent Islamic state, Moscow suppressed the rebellion with an iron hand. This incident initiated the Second Chechen War in the capital city of Grozny in 2000, and Russia retook control of Chechnya.
In 2007, the President of Russia, Vladimir Putin declared Ramzan A. Kadyrov, a former Chechen rebel, the President of Chechnya. By 2011, President Kadyrov suppressed all the insurgencies, making Chechnya one of the stable republics in the North Caucasus region. But according to several international sources. Kadyrov established peace at the cost of many lives and by violating several human rights protocols. Moscow has been very pro-active in providing economic
support to Chechnya, especially for the development of the capital city of Grozny. But the picture of peace and prosperity is sometimes disrupted by intermittent violence.

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